Tumors represent a multidimensional phenomena, not only confined to clinical and research settings but of a major impact on affected patients, their relatives (in the family, psychological, social and work sphere) and therefore the whole society.
Who has assisted or assists parents, sons, brothers or sisters, a husband or a wife affected by a tumor, or who has met a cancer patient, knows how important it is to find a medical specialist in the shortest possible time. The best medical expert of a specific pathology will be able to support the patient in his clinical journey.
These medical experts work and carry out research projects in our country. Often we think that we can find the best solution abroad, but as the numbers of cancer in Italy in 2015 drafted by AIOM and AIRTUM, data demonstrates:
Cancer survival in Italy for many cancer facilities, is equal or superior to many average European institutions. Even though the level of mortality is reducing and the level of survival increasing, oncological pathologies are an extremely relevant phenomena, with 363.000 citizens demanding this year medical assistance for a tumor diagnosis and 3.000.000 Italians having gone through a similar experience and therefore go through periodical check ups and require new social-medical assistance.
There are various types of tumors, as stated by the prestigious AIRC website:
We cannot talk of a single illness named cancer but of various types of illnesses, that have different and distinct causes, that affect different organs and tissues and therefore require special diagnostic tests and therapeutic solutions.
Information Sheet on tumors
For every type of tumor we provide a short information sheet on the symptoms, diagnosis, therapies, risk factors, the causes, propagation and the list of medical experts available for an online consultation.
Brain tumor: The infected area is the brain or the spinal cord (more rare).
Ocular tumor: the most common form of Ocular cancer is ocular melanoma.
Oral Cavity tumor: The infected area is the mouth (lips, gums, the internal surface of the cheeks, tongue and oral floor, the hard and soft palate or the section beyond the wisdom teeth called retromolar trigone).
Pharyngeal tumor: nasopharyngeal tumor (rear section of the nose), oropharynx tumor (the rear section of the mouth), hypopharynx ( the section behind the larynx and connects the rear part of the mouth with the esophagus).
Salivary glands tumor: it is a tumor that develops in the major salivary glands such as the parotid (in front of the ear), submandibular (located at the level of the cheek), sublingual (located underneath the tongue) and minor located in the lips and in the mucosa of the mouth and the pharynx.
Nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses tumor: it is a tumor that develops in the nasal cavities and the the paranasal sinuses, such as the ethmoid ( between the eye and the nose), sphenoid ( behind the eyes), frontal(located at the forehead) or maxillary ( located at the jaw).
Laryngeal tumor: The infected area is the Larynx, the section that contains the vocal cords and is located between the pharynx and the trachea.
Thyroid tumor: Thyroid cancer infects the gland at the base of neck that is composed of two lobes that produce thyroid hormones (its shape remembers a butterfly with two lateral lobes united by a thinner section called isthmus).
Breast tumor: Breast Cancer is characterized by the presence of neoplastic cells (malign) in the mammary tissue.
Lung tumor: The tumor forms in the bronchi or in the lung parenchyma (tissue).
Pleural Mesothelioma: The Thorax and the Lungs are covered by the pleural membrane that can be infected by a tumor.
Thymus tumor: It is characterized by the presence of cancer cells in the thymus tissue, a small organ placed behind the breastbone, in the anterior section of the mediastinum, between the lungs.
Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: Lymphoma is characterized by abnormal lymphocytes which are particular white blood cells which originate in lymphatic organs, for example in lymph nodes or in the spleen.
Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: The cancer starts in white blood cells called lymphocytes which are particular white blood cells. It differs from Hodgkin’s Lymphoma due to the absence of binucleate giant cells.
Esophageal tumor: the infected area is the esophagus (a tube of 30cm that moves the food you swallow from the pharynx to the stomach).
Stomach tumor: this pathology originates in the section of the food duct located between the terminal area of the esophagus and the small intestine.
GIST: stromal tumors are rare growths that can develop in gastrointestinal organs, from the esophagus to the rectum.
Liver tumor: The liver is an organ located beneath the right side of the ribs, it produces bile that is essential for digestion and detoxifies the organism from toxins and wastes).
Gallbladder, biliary duct and ampulla of Vater tumors: the infected area is the gallbladder ( it collects the bile produced by the liver and releases it in the small intestine).
Pancreatic tumor: The pancreas is an organ that produces gastric acids that flow into the Duodenum together with the bile produced by the liver and produces insulin hormones for the metabolism of sugars and can be infected by cancer.
Kidney tumor: The two kidneys, located at the lower back of the spinal cord, filter the blood, eliminate waste products in urine, control pressure and produce various hormones. Typically only one of the two kidneys is infected by cancer.
Bladder tumor: Bladder cancer is characterized by the presence of cancer cells in the bladder, a muscular sac in the pelvis that collects the urine.
Prostrate tumor: The prostrate is located under the male bladder and secretes fluids that transport sperms. The prostate can also be infected by cancer.
Testicular tumor: the testicles are composed of various cell types. Due to the variety of cells in this organ, different tumors can develop, the most frequent being seminomas and non seminomas.
Penile tumor: The tumor starts with a small injury on the glans or on the foreskin of the penis.
Colorectal tumor: The tumor infects the intestine (colon) or its terminal segment ( rectum).
Anal Cancer: The infected area is the section of the intestine.
Melanoma and other skin tumors: Cancer infecting the skin can originate in different skin layers and from different cells that form the skin. Melanoma is a skin cancer that originates from Melanocytes cells.
Bone Sarcomas: The most common are Osteosarcoma and Ewing’s sarcoma and originate in bone cells in any location of the skeleton.
Multiple Myeloma: cancer infecting the blood cells and the bone marrow.
Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Soft Tissue cancer is characterized by the presence of cancer cells in soft tissues, therefore muscles, tendons (connective tissue), nerves, lymphatic and blood vessels, joints and the adipose tissue.
Endocrine tumors: They are tumors that originate from the neuroendocrine system cells and can affect various organs including thyroid, lungs, thymus, pancreas, intestine, adrenal glands.
Immuno-oncology: Immunotherapy treatments (oncologist) and management of possible collateral effects (Internist).
Psychological Oncology: Support actions for oncological patients and their families.
Palliative cure and Pain Therapy: therapeutic and assistance approaches from the moment of diagnosis to help ease the pain of the patient and improve the quality of his life in his treatment’s journey.